History of History Pradesh


Himachal Pradesh is a state in Northern India. It is bordered by Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttarakhand on the south-east and by the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east. Hima stands for snow in Sanskrit, and the accurate meaning of the state's name is “in the lap of Himalayas.” Himachal Pradesh is famous for its bountiful natural beauty. Himachal is situated in the western Himalayas. Covering an area of 55,673 kilometres (34,594 mi), Himachal Pradesh is a mountainous state with elevation ranging from about 350 metres (1,148 ft) to 7,000 metres (22,966 ft) above the sea level. The drainage system of Himachal is composed both of rivers and glaciers. Himalayan rivers criss-cross the entire mountain chain. Himachal Pradesh provides water to both the Indus and Ganges basins. The drainage systems of the region are the Chandra Bhaga or the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, the Sutlej and the Yamuna. These rivers are perennial and are fed by snow and rainfall. They are protected by an extensive cover of natural vegetation.

Climate

There is great variation in the climatic conditions of Himachal due to extreme variation in elevation. The climate varies from hot and sub-humid tropical in the southern tracts to cold, alpine and glacial in the northern and eastern mountain ranges with more elevation. The state has areas like Dharamsala that receive very heavy rainfall, as well as those like Lahaul and Spiti that are cold and almost droughty. Broadly, Himachal experiences three seasons; summer season, winter season and rainy season. Summer lasts from mid April to the end of June and most parts are very hot (except in alpine zone which experiences a mild summer) with the average temperature ranging from 28 °C (82 °F) to  32 °C (90 °F). Winter lasts from late November to mid March. Snowfall is prevalent in alpine tracts (generally above 2,200 metres (7,218 ft) i.e. in the Higher and Trans-Himalayan region).

Economy

The economy of the Himachal Pradesh is currently third fastest growing economy in India. Himachal Pradesh has been ranked fourth in the list of the highest per capita incomes of Indian states. The abundance of perennial rivers enables Himachal to sell hydroelectricity to other states such as Delhi, Punjab and Rajasthan. The economy of the state is highly dependent on three sources: hydroelectric power, tourism and agriculture. Himachal Pradesh is the least urbanized state in India with nearly 90% of population living in rural area, but the Shimla district is urbanized with nearly 25% population living in urban area. According to  Transparency International survey, in 2005 Himachal Pradesh is ranked as the second-least corrupt state in India after Kerala.

Languages

Hindi is the official Language and the lingua franca of Himachal Pradesh. However, ample of the population speaks Pahari, which includes nearly all Western Pahari dialects. Medium of education in schools and colleges is Hindi or English. Punjabi is also widely spoken.

Demographics

Himachal Pradesh has a total population of 6,856,509 including 3,473,892 males and 3,382,617 females as per the provisional results of the Census of India 2011. This is only 0.57 percent of India's total population, recording a growth of 12.81 per cent. Total fertility rate (TFR) per woman is 1.8 which is one of lowest in India. Himachal Pradesh has a literacy rate of 83.78 per cent and gender ratio of 974/1000, according to the 2011 Census figures.